Bone china and porcelain: What’s the difference?

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Why are dishes called china? Porcelain and bone china are two different types of ceramics that are very similar. You may have seen both types of dishes in your grandma’s house, or maybe you received some for your wedding. The short of it all is that both kinds of ceramics are very nice dinnerware usually used on special occasions. Whether you have your own or recently inherited some, you probably want to know what kind of dishes you have. Many people can’t tell the difference between bone china and porcelain by looking at it, but there are some significant differences. Read on to find out what the differences are and how you can tell them apart.

Bone china

Bone china gets its name because it is made with bone ash. Bone ash is precisely what it sounds like: Animal bones, usually cow bones, ground into an ash consistency. Bone china has a specific percentage of bone ash, generally between 30% and 45%, mixed into the other ingredients that can include quartz, kaolin (a type of clay), feldspar, ball clay, silica, and more. The mixture is then sculpted or molded into the desired shape and prepared for firing.

Firing is the process that ceramics go through to harden them to be used for food and drink. Bone china is unique in that it can withstand being fired twice in the kiln, which is the oven used for firing ceramics. The first phase of firing causes the piece of bone china to shrink, and the second phase sets the glaze to the china so it becomes one. Typically, bone china is fired at a maximum temperature of 2,228 degrees Fahrenheit (1,220 degrees Celsius).

Porcelain

Porcelain is different from bone china for one main reason: It doesn’t contain any bone ash. The ingredients for porcelain have varied throughout history and region, so it may be difficult to tell exactly what your porcelain dishes are made of unless you know when and where they were made. European porcelain is usually made of clay, ground glass, feldspar, and other materials, whereas Chinese porcelain is made of pegmatite granite and kaolin. The main difference between bone china and porcelain other than ingredients is that porcelain is harder than bone china and is fired in a kiln at a higher temperature. Porcelain is fired at approximately 2,650 degrees Fahrenheit (1,454 degrees Celsius).

Fine china

Fine china is neither bone china nor porcelain but is another type of ceramic that exists to confuse matters more. Fine china does not have bone ash in it, and it is not fired at a temperature as high as porcelain, so it is a different category of ceramics. The main difference between porcelain and fine china is that fine china is not as durable as porcelain due to the lower temperature that it is fired at.

Bone china vs. porcelain

At a glance, you may not be able to tell the difference between bone china, fine china, and porcelain. However, if you look closely, bone china will not be as bright white as fine china or porcelain. Bone china has a more off-white color than porcelain. Porcelain is also more durable and feels heavier in your hand than bone china. Typically the words “bone china” are marked on the bottom of a piece of bone china. If you hold china up to a light, you will see that bone china is more translucent than fine china.

No matter what kind of ceramic dishes you have, you should break them out of their storage place and use them once in a while. Sure, they may be family heirlooms, but what good are fancy dishes if you never show them off?

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